Monthly Archive:: October 2015

Small Farm Advantages

Virginia Small FarmsIt’s no secret that America and similarly developed nations are dominated by large corporate farms. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that 91% of U.S. farms are “small farms,” meaning they have a gross cash farm income of $250,000 or less. Don’t let that number fool you; the remaining nine percent is responsible for the vast majority of production. A few months ago we wrote an article about cropland consolidation in the U.S. Midpoint acreage is the point at which half of the farms are above the stated acreage and half are below. It’s a more effective way of measuring farm growth in this country. The USDA estimates that between 1987 and 2007, the midpoint acreage nearly doubled, jumping from 589 to 1105. Given that the mean acreage is roughly unchanged, this means that the middle is diminishing and farms are generally very big or very small. Only a few hundred years ago, Thomas Jefferson stood contemplating the expanse of Albemarle County and envisioning the future. In it, he pictured a sustainable agrarian society with yeomen farmers working the central Virginia land with their families and interacting directly with their communities. In our present day, the property in Albemarle County and other places in the Piedmont region is still well-suited to small farming. Unlike the Midwest or the Mississippi Delta, land in central Virginia lacks the contiguous, seemingly endless stretches of open land that make it ideal for mass farming. But small farms have a few advantages that are worth considering.

Technically speaking, small farming is more efficient than the larger, conglomerate alternative. “Efficiency” takes on different meanings depending on context. Certainly we must consider the economies of scale at work. Mechanization replaced animal husbandry in the last two centuries, and bigger farms were certainly on the winning end of this paradigm shift. The bigger the farm, the more access its owners have to capital technologies. If you own a farm with autonomous vehicles and GPS tracking for precision agriculture, you can save money on labor and overtime and use these savings/profits to expand. You also save on processing of harvest, transportation, etc. This is efficiency in a sense, definitely. From a monetary perspective, the bigger your farm, the better. It helps cut down on costs if you specialize in one or a few products too. From that perspective, it is efficient.

But small farms are more efficient in the sense that they do more with the land provided. Consider this a diseconomy of scale. There exists an inverse relationship between farm size and production per unit that is a testament to the supervision and utilization of labor present on small farms. Or perhaps it’s a testament to the amount of money big farms save on capital technology and input production costs; it’s worth it for them to have less efficient labor systems. When labor costs are an important consideration (as in the farming of specialty crops), small farms have an advantage. Things like quality of labor and local knowledge become important factors. We’re in central Virginia here, but it’s worth mentioning that in developing nations, farm size is actually decreasing. Population growth causes a subdivision of farm property…it’s actually less profitable to run a big farm in most places, because there are no (or fewer) economies of scale.

Agricultural practices tend to be more environmentally sustainable on small farms. Monocropping refers to the farming of only one crop. It is often conflated with the idea of specialization, even though they are not exactly the same thing. Focusing on one or two products makes sense from an an economical standpoint, because you consolidate resources by using the same inputs (fertilizer, machinery, herbicides, etc.) This even extends to the more intangible resources like knowledge and expertise, and soil quality. People will argue that monocropping exists because soil in certain areas is well-suited to certain crops and ill-suited to others. For example, the rolling uplands make land in central Virginia very good for cultivating orchards and vineyards, and there definitely are a lot of those on properties in Albemarle County and other places. This is certainly true, but excessive monocropping is not good for the soil. It leaves it fallow during the months when it’s not in use, and depletes it of the same nutrients time and time again. This makes the farmer reliant on fertilizer to replenish the soil, and pesticides to keep at bay the numerous pests who have a preference for certain crops. By contrast, a great many small farms practice crop rotation. This is sustainable agriculture at its finest. By rotating crops, you avoid the unwanted consequences of depleting the same soil over and over. Pests become less accustomed to getting their favorite snacks consistently. Mixing crops also makes weather less of a factor when considering adverse conditions for a farmer, since chances are you’ll be using different parts of the soil at different times. Depending on where you’re at, crop rotation also leaves a farmer less susceptible to financial risk. With monocropping, you’re essentially (and sometimes literally, if you own a chicken farm) “putting all your eggs into one basket.”

The history of agriculture is dominated by small farms. At risk of presenting an overly idealized vision, we would hazard to say that farmers interacting with their immediate natural surroundings in a positive way is a “good thing.” Permaculture is the concept of the farm as part of the surrounding ecosystem, and farmers who practice it strive to either directly use or simulate pre existing ecological conditions without seeking to significantly alter the landscape in the name of productivity. In a previous article, we mentioned Timbercreek, a farm in Albemarle County that utilizes natural systems in its agricultural practices, particularly its grazing. The grazing of animals (especially cows) is often very detrimental to the environment. Managed intensive rotational grazing is a system in which grazing animals are systematically moved to different regions of pasture. Timbercreek’s model is similar to other small organic farms in that its aim is to utilize as much land as possible. This system begins with cows (sheep, goats and other ruminants could take their place) grazing an area of the farm, clearing the tall, leafy stalks as they continue in a pre-planned progression. Chickens and other poultry follow the path, grazing on the insects, worms, and underbrush left behind by the cows. As the chickens move forward, the pasture is given time to grow replenish its nutrients while animals are eating other regions. This system isn’t utilized on bigger farms because it’s fairly labor-intensive. By and large, labor is something large farms try to avoid as much as possible, preferring mechanization and automated systems to take the place of the human. Such is the natural progression; agriculture may have spurred industrialization, but it is hardly the only area where its effects are felt. When you have the resources of a big farm, it’s less cost-efficient to hire labor because it’s harder to adequately supervise a workforce that big, and you’ve often got the resources to use machines. Another benefit of small farming is that it promotes the local economy, both the farming and non-farming economy, and we see shares of incremental income go into the economy. Big conglomerate farms don’t really do much for the surrounding rural poor, but the majority of the population in the developing world makes its living on what would be considered small farms.

One of the most important things that small farms give us is biodiversity. The idea of biodiversity in agriculture is practically married to the history of the domesticated crops. The early farmers weren’t cultivating crops for entire national or even city populations. As such, this modern idea of homogenized agriculture would have been completely alien to them, and is probably pretty foreign to modern small farmers in the developing world. Genetic diversity tends to be concentrated in certain areas, and these are likely some of the oldest crop centers in human history. In the mid-90s, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center reported that Mexcio had 4,220 of the new maize accessions. Guatemala had 590. The U.S. (which contains three times the combined acreage of both countries) only added 43 new strains (Boyce). Mexican farmers grow over 5000 varieties of maize, whereas in the U.S. (with its 70 million acres), more than 70% of the land is used to crow no more than half-a-dozen different genetic lines (Boyce). High-diversity farming requires more intensive labor…you have to account for differences in soil requirements, harvest times, etc. It needs more time and effort on behalf of the farmers, who must have an intricate knowledge of different crop varieties and their relationships to microhabitat variation, the specific attributes of each variation, etc. Large farms simply aren’t equipped to do this.

But there are problems with low-diversity agriculture, as you’d guess. Insects and plant pathogens are constantly evolving, and they are very adaptable, especially when you plant a few species of corn across several thousand acres. The average commercial lifespan of corn in the U.S. is only seven years, after which the strain is rendered obsolete and becomes highly susceptible to newly-evolved pests. Consider the southern corn leaf blight epidemic of the 1970s. Prior to the epidemic, American seed companies aimed to cut down on labor costs by using sterile male cytoplasm, eliminating the need for laborers to de-tassle corn by hand. It’s estimated that the seed was bred into 90% of the maize in Texas…this strain was also highly susceptible to the pathogen bipolaris maydis which causes the fungal Southern leaf corn blight. In 1970, it spread rapidly from the South to the Northeast and Midwest. It’s estimated that the U.S. lost over a billion dollars in corn sales that year. Biodiversity is what fuels agriculture. It’s foolish to assume that we’re at the end of the agricultural timeline, that we’ve discovered all the foods we’re ever going to need to eat. Small farms preserve and cultivate several different genetic varieties of a crop, and this is vital for human survival, whether it is extremely profitable or not. If you’ve got any interest in owning rural property in central Virginia, you have a chance to be part of something greater than the sum of its parts. And in a city like Charlottesville, with its culinary accolades and thriving farm-to-table aesthetic, owning a small farm could be more profitable than you think.  Give us a call today and let’s get started finding your ideal farm in Virginia!


Boyce, James K. “A Future for Small Farms? Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture.” Political Economy and Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Your Horse’s Health: Buying a Horse Farm in Virginia

Horse Health Care: Considerations when Buying a Horse Farm in Virginia

Horse Farms in Virgnia for SaleWe can etch idyllic images into the stone tablets of our minds, of the beautiful sprawling horse farms in Virginia, with proud Arabians and Thoroughbreds charging the lush green landscape. If you have always dreamed of owning a horse farm, central Virginia can hardly be beat. You certainly wouldn’t be the first person to put this together; there is a general spirit of equine appreciation with numerous foxhunts, trail riding clubs, training facilities scattered throughout the greater Charlottesville area.

In our haste to manifest these splendorous visions, we must not forget the day-to-day considerations through which good horse farms are made and maintained. We don’t mean to lecture you from our high horses (yikes), but good equine healthcare is important and can sometimes be overlooked by inexperienced newcomers or farmers who want to save a few bucks. Here we’ll outline some important things to keep in mind.


Good health starts at home, no matter the species. Keeping horses on open pastures is the most common way to establish healthy practices. If you’re raising horses in central Virginia, there should be no shortage of open pasture to house your friends. Keeping horses out at pasture is linked to fewer behavioral problems and actual diseases, compared to stabling horses in stalls and such. This may be the guiding principle behind recess. It’s ideal (both for horse health and and pasture integrity) to have two acres per horse if you can manage it. Sometimes you’ll need additional acreage, if there are questions of soil quality, topography, or if you’ve got other animals using the property. The higher the stocking rates (# of horses on your property), the more pasture management you should be prepared to oversee. This entails mowing, fertilizing, and everything in between. Your horses should of course have access to clean drinking water wherever they are. For fencing, wood or diamond mesh are recommended. There is no one optimal fencing material; it depends on the age and disposition of your horses. But one universal consideration: make sure your gates fasten securely. Avoid gates/mesh with gaps big enough for horses to get their hooves stuck.

Of course you can’t just buy and maintain a plot of land and call it a day. Horses need solid shelters during inclement weather and for protection from the extreme cold and heat. If you’re new to the area, you should know that owning a horse farm in Charlottesville (or more likely the Greater Charlottesville area) means you should be prepared for rain, and lots of it. We aren’t very susceptible to hurricanes here (with a few exceptions), but sometimes we can get hit by severe rain from tropical cyclones and other inclement weather systems. Your shelter could be natural or man-made. Either way, we recommend between 100 and 150 square feet per horse. If you’re building shelters for your horses, you should optimize the drainage system and face the structure away from the prevailing winds. Proper ventilation is also vital. Try to make sure the structure is at least 50 feet from any property lines and 100 feet away from your neighbors.

If for some reason pasture is not a viable option, look into a drylot. There’s barely any vegetation on these; they tend to be used when pasture is unavailable. Make sure the drainage systems are highly functional, so as to avoid having horses standing around in the mud. Drylots are constructed with a stone base and covered with pulverized stone or clay. If you’re trying to manage obesity in horses, drylots are good because the horses can still walk around and expend energy, but they don’t have the option of idly grazing.

Stables should only be used in cases of extremely limited pasture, inclement weather, health issues or injury. Barns should be located close to turnout areas and in an area where you can easily turn around horse trailers and larger trucks. Optimize drainage and ventilation as best you can and make sure there are no gaps where horses may get a hoof stuck.

Diet and nutrition

Horses need the right balance of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals, and the proportion depends on your horse’s age, weight, and status (not marital…gestating, lactating, etc). With regards to evolution, horses came up grazing for several hours on sparse forage. They have small stomachs (2-5 gallons) and high metabolisms; as a result, they’re best suited to eating small amounts of food continuously. This makes pasture the ideal situation, and especially on central Virginia horse farms, where many horses are bred for recreation, pasture is often sufficient. If you don’t have access to pasture, feeding hay isn’t bad. General recommendations are between one-and-half and two pounds of hay per 100 pounds of body weight daily (at the very least). Horses are used to eating small amounts several times a day, so remember to split up the feedings. This will help with digestion and weight control. See our previous article about gauging weight.

Horses need salt to balance their diets; table salt (NaCl) contains both sodium and chloride, two important electrolytes. Even non-working horses need at least 10 grams a day. Working horses may need twice that. Electrolytes are important when it’s humid and horses are sweating or when it’s cold and horses aren’t drinking as much water. The pastures on many Virginia horse farms quite often have some level of electrolytes, but you should have salt for horses on hand, especially for those on a hay diet. If sodium is low, the cells are unable to hold water. This exacerbates conditions like anhidrosis (an abnormal lack of sweat in heat), and causes muscles to tense, stiffen, and tremble during use. Before starting any type of supplements though, always consult with your veterinarian.

As previously stated, horses have limited intake capacity. Pregnant mares, hard-working horses, and growing young foals may require grain to supplement their diets. Whether your horses graze pasture or eat hay, it may not be enough to sustain horses in these conditions. Manufacturer recommendations are based on body condition and exercise.

The amount of protein horses can synthesize depends on what amino acids are available. Lysine is usually depleted first, and so you’ll often see feed with “added lysine.” The average horse on a horse farm in central Virginia probably needs between 8-12% protein in its diet, 12-18% if it’s a young growing foal or a pregnant mare. Proteins go toward building muscles and hooves, and they are associated with rapid cell development, so it makes sense for these two groups of horses.

Vitamins can be important supplements, but horses synthesize a lot of their own so they may not be necessary in large amounts. Be wary of overdoing it here: water-soluble vitamins get excreted in the urine, but an excess of fat-soluble vitamins can contribute to obesity.

Minerals are inorganic materials. The amount of vitamins and minerals depends on age and status. Most commercial feed meets these needs, as does forage. Biotin, zinc, and copper can improve horse strength. But don’t overdo it.  As always, talk with your vet first to create a nutrition plan that is suitable for each of your horses.

Contagious diseases and parasites

Horses are susceptible to many specific types of disease, especially pregnant mares, aging horses, and young foals. Any type of control program should reduce a horse’s exposure to disease-causing agents. One especially notable disease is equine infectious anemia (EIA) also known as swamp fever. It’s caused by a retrovirus and transmitted by blood-sucking insects such as the horse-fly. It’s also transmitted by reusing syringes and needles and symptoms include high fever, anemia, general weakness and fatigue, and swelling of lower abdomen and hind legs. It’s a serious affliction, capable of inducing miscarriage in pregnant mares. Make sure all new horses have a negative Coggins test…this ensures that they don’t have EIA. As a general rule, new horses should be reared in an isolation barn for 30 days. It may seem harsh, but it’s one of the only ways to protect your current stock from any unwanted diseases of which you may be unaware. Isolate for ten days, horses that seem sick, until symptoms disappear. Make sure you rigorously clean and disinfect all stalls where sick horses have been.

Proper contagious disease control also includes the use of vaccines. Ask your veterinarian about these, since they vary based on the age and status of your horse. Every adult horse needs vaccines for tetanus, rabies, west Nile virus, and eastern/western encephalomyelitis.

Generally all equestrian events such as horse shows, fox hunts and group trail rides will request proof that your horse has been vaccinated for the flu and equine herpes virus 1 and 4. Once again, talk to your vet about specific recommendations.

Parasites are just as much a legitimate a concern as disease in horses. Worms slip by without much notice until they are truly entrenched in a horse’s bodily systems, and by the time symptoms manifest themselves, they’re much more difficult to address. The most common are roundworms, strongyles, tapeworms, and botfly larvae. Young horses are more susceptible to worms. Parasite eggs are passed in the feces of infected horses and absorbed by other horses through the environment. The passage of parasite larvae through a horse’s body causes tissue damage in the lungs, intestinal walls, and blood vessels. When the worms mature, they cause intestinal irritation and obstructions. Talk to your vet if this happens; chances are you need a combination of anthelmintics (dewormer) and improved management practices. What type and how much dewormer to use depends on your horse’s weight, age and other factors. As far as management practices go, it’s all about proper handling of feces, as unpleasant as it sounds. Make sure you clean feces from stalls regularly, and avoid spreading manure until properly composted.

Hoof and dental

A horse definitely needs his hooves in order to be of much use, so it’s important to pay attention. Good hoof care will help guard against lameness, imbalance, and other problems. If you handle a horse’s feet early on, they’ll get used to it. Horses should have their hooves trimmed by a farrier every six to 12 weeks; this is key for balance. Also be on the lookout for sharp objects than can harm hooves, or small gaps where a horse could get a foot stuck easily. Horseshoes usually aren’t necessary unless you are ride a lot or ride on rough surfaces. Failure to maintain hooves could result in thrush (a bacterial infection) and cracks in the hoof.

Horses need proper dental care as well, and that means regular dental checkups. The better their dental condition, the more likely it is that a horse will keep its teeth, and that they’ll eat better and more efficiently. Horses don’t exhibit signs of dental wear until it’s too late, so it’s important to be proactive and preventative here. Some of the problems associated with the horse’s dental condition include sharp points that cause lacerations in the cheeks and jaw and improper tooth alignment, which can lead to uneven, worn down, fractured or missing teeth. As with hoof care, if you introduce a foal to dental care early, they’ll become used to it. Teeth should be examined after birth and again after weaning; it’s around the weaning stage that you’ll be able to identify any dental birth defects. So there you have it…our guide to making sure your horses stay healthy.

If you are searching for horse farms for sale in Virginia, let one of our experienced horse farm Realtors be your guide.  In the meantime, you might like conducting your own search at

Organic Farms in Virginia

You Should Know About These Organic Farms in Virginia

Rotational farming in VirginiaLet’s face it…as far as trends go, we could do a lot worse than organic farming. The shift towards cropland consolidation in the United States means that farms are bigger now than they ever were, but it’s also created kind of a pushback. In the Greater Charlottesville area and in many other places around the country, there is a growing demand for fresh, organic, locally-sourced meat and produce. In many ways, it’s definitely a response to the growing detachment between the food that’s raised on these huge corporate farms and the food, we as consumers get at the grocery store and take into our own kitchens and dining rooms. The land in Albemarle County is well-suited for such an approach because of the thriving culinary scene in Charlottesville. It’s no surprise that the farm-to-table movement would land in Charlottesville; it’s a city often celebrated for its cuisine, and there is ample farmland around it. Here are a few local organic farms in Virginia:

Bellair Farm

853 acres is nothing to shake a stick at. About 11 or so miles south of downtown Charlottesville, this Albemarle County institution has been around and operational since the 17th century. They grow over 50 different fruits and vegetables, and it’s all clean produce that adheres to organic standards. They also raise pigs, chickens, rabbits, sheep and cows. Their livestock are raised in pasture, and the farmers forgo the use of GMO feed. Bellair works pretty hard to preserve the soil long-term, employing methods like crop rotation. Seeking to connect with the community, the fine folks at Bellair Farm started a CSA. This allows consumers to get fresh veggies below the market price for a period of 22 weeks while giving farmers capital that they’d usually be without until harvest season. Beyond this, you get to experience the farm firsthand; everything from talking to the crew to enjoying picnics on their scenic Albemarle County farm. If you join the CSA, you get to enjoy the Pick-Your-Own experience; you literally get to “pick up” your produce, grabbing cherry tomatoes, hot peppers, and herbs while perusing the almost 900-acre property in near Charlottesville. Bellair also offers community workshops throughout the year, open to anybody but cheaper for students, CSA members, and farm apprentices. These informative sessions include lessons on things like “Cooking with Seasonal Foods” (taught by Tucker Yoder, chef at established Charlottesville restaurants such as the Clifton Inn and the Alley Light) and “Kraut and Kimchi,” a session on fermentation. Sometimes, the owners of Bellair will lease land on their farm to other like-minded individuals. One prime example is the Twenty Paces creamery, which makes delicious ricotta cheese from goat and sheep’s milk.

Timbercreek Farm

If you’ve been to a restaurant in Charlottesville, chances are you’ve already tasted some of the exceptional pork, poultry, or beef raised at Timbercreek Farm. The farm is a few miles outside of town, on some farmland in Albemarle County and along scenic Garth Road. They provide products to some of the best spots in the city: The Whiskey Jar, Revolutionary Soup, Maya, Citizen Burger, and Lampo Neapolitan Pizza just to name a few. They also supply wholesale products to butchers like The Rock Barn. If you’re not from the Greater Charlottesville area, then I guess you’re out of luck, because these farmers are committed to community. That means they only use materials provided by local vendors and, by-and-large only serve local businesses. At the core of their personal philosophy is a reliance on both polyculture and permaculture. The former indicates that, contrary to many of the bigger farms, they diversify their products; rather than specialize in one or two areas to maximize profit margins, they have a varied list of offerings. This ties in with permaculture, the concept of a system of agriculture which either simulates or utilizes patterns that are naturally-occurring. In spring and summer when the ground is more moist, they use their pork to help manage trees and pastures, conscious of the pig’s natural tendency to “root.” They graze cattle on pastures and, once they’ve eaten the taller, tougher grasses, the farmers bring in the chickens which forage for insects and smaller grasses. This rotational grazing helps to keep the pasture healthy and vibrant. The cattle, typically derived from Angus genetics, are sustainably raised and fed on grass. The eggs are truly free-range, with hens going to roost and laying in mobile homes that move in rotation behind the cattle. All of this is done without the use of cages, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizer, antibiotics, hormones, or supplement feed containing GMOs. And you can taste the difference!

Caromont Farm

Situated about 23 miles south of Charlottesville, near the tiny town of Esmont, Virginia, the fine people at Caromont aren’t “kidding” around…they mean business! They work hard to raise a herd of goats which provide fresh and aged cheeses, often working with other local establishments to maintain high quality. It wasn’t an easy start, but since kicking things off in 2007, the Caramont crew have been hard at work. All the cheese is hand-ladled and made on the farm where it’s tended daily. The cow’s milk is sourced from nearby Silky Farms, in North Garden, Virginia…and the goat cheese? Well, it’s straight from the source! Owner Gail Hobbs-Page and co. raise Alpine, Saanens, and La Mancha goats. Most of their cheeses are made with goat’s’ milk, like the flagship chevre, a creamy lactic cheese that they launched when they first started in 2007, or the native Esmontian, a semi-firm, enzymatic tomme that’s aged for at least 60 days. Like the other farms on this list, Caromont has a commitment to community. The prevailing idea behind their delicious cheeses is simple: good cheese comes from good milk, which comes from happy goats and cows grazing on good, solid land.

Twin Oaks Tofu

Twin Oaks has been around since 1967, making it one of the longest-running intentional communities. Its inhabitants, little under a hundred people, support each other on their farm in central Virginia (Louisa County to be specific) through a well-crafted model of communal living. They used to generate most of their revenue through the sale of hammocks and other “casual furniture,” but since 2011, tofu has risen to become one of their main sources of income. Their product is available at a wide variety of grocery stores in the area (like Whole Foods), and makes its way to several local restaurants, Revolutionary Soup being a prime example. They take the process as seriously as any of the other members of our list, always using fresh, local, organic soybeans and eschewing the use of GMOs and any mechanization. That’s right…handmade tofu. The result is a high-quality product that has become prized in many personal and professional kitchens throughout the Greater Charlottesville area. In particular, Twin Oaks tofu is celebrated for its firmness. This is certainly a key component of tofu, and here’s why: with a wide variety of herbs, spices, and flavors, you can simulate taste with relative ease. You’ve got to know what you’re doing, of course but it’s not out of the question to apply the way something tastes to other items on the menu (clearly, the writer is not a chef). However simulating texture is a completely different beast. Oftentimes tofu is too soggy and limp. This is likely due to a confluence of factors: storage and preservation, cooking and preparation etc. But Twin Oaks is known for a very firm, easy-to-work with product that doesn’t require any pressing or drying out prior to cooking. They attribute this to their “artisanal” well-water, which is free of fluorides and chlorine. After all, tofu is 70% water. And if it’s from Twin Oaks…100% scrumptious.

Are you looking for an organic farm for sale in Virginia?  Obviously none of these are for sale, but we’d love to help you find your new farm in Virginia!